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Messages - ahiliya

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แลกเปลี่ยน เรียนรู้ / Re: ต่างแดนกับอาหารไทย
« เมื่อ: พฤศจิกายน 12, 2012, 05:10:35 PM »
Chinese barbecue deli restaurants, called siu laap and sometimes called a "noodle house" or mein ga, are generally low-key and serve less expensive fare such as wonton noodles (or wonton mein), chow fun (stir-fry rice noodles), Yeung Chow fried rice, and rice porridge or congee, known as juk in Cantonese Chinese. They also tend to have displays of whole pre-cooked roasted ducks and suckling pigs hanging in their windows, a common feature in most Chinatowns worldwide. These delis also serve barbecue pork (cha siu), chicken feet, and other Chinese-style items less welcome to the typical Western palate. Food is usually intended for take-out. Some of these Chinatown restaurants sometimes have the reputation of being "greasy spoons" and reputation for poor service. Vietnamese immigrants, both ethnic Chinese and non-Chinese, have opened restaurants in many Chinatowns, serving Vietnamese pho beef noodle soups and Franco-Vietnamese sandwiches. Some immigrants have also started restaurants serving Teochew Chinese cuisine. Some Chinatowns old and new may also contain several pan-Asian restaurants offering a variety of Asian noodles under one roof.

แลกเปลี่ยน เรียนรู้ / Re: เรื่องชีส
« เมื่อ: พฤศจิกายน 12, 2012, 05:07:45 PM »
Cheese is a generic term for a diverse group of milk-based food products. Cheese is produced in wide-ranging flavors, textures, and forms. Cheese consists of proteins and fat from milk, usually the milk of cows, buffalo, goats, or sheep. It is produced by coagulation of the milk protein casein. Typically, the milk is acidified and addition of the enzyme rennet causes coagulation. The solids are separated and pressed into final form. Some cheeses have molds on the rind or throughout. Most cheeses melt at cooking temperature. Hundreds of types of cheese are produced. Their styles, textures and flavors depend on the origin of the milk (including the animal's diet), whether they have been pasteurized, the butterfat content, the bacteria and mold, the processing, and aging. Herbs, spices, or wood smoke may be used as flavoring agents. The yellow to red color of many cheeses, such as Red Leicester, is formed from adding annatto. For a few cheeses, the milk is curdled by adding acids such as vinegar or lemon juice. Most cheeses are acidified to a lesser degree by bacteria, which turn milk sugars into lactic acid, then the addition of rennet completes the curdling. Vegetarian alternatives to rennet are available; most are produced by fermentation of the fungus Mucor miehei, but others have been extracted from various species of the Cynara thistle family. Cheese is valued for its portability, long life, and high content of fat, protein, calcium, and phosphorus. Cheese is more compact and has a longer shelf life than milk, although how long a cheese will keep may depend on the type of cheese; labels on packets of cheese often claim that a cheese should be consumed within three to five days of opening. Generally speaking, hard cheeses last longer than soft cheeses, such as Brie or goat's milk cheese. Cheesemakers near a dairy region may benefit from fresher, lower-priced milk, and lower shipping costs. The long storage life of some cheese, especially if it is encased in a protective rind, allows selling when markets are favorable. Additional ingredients may be added to some cheeses, such as black peppers, garlic, chives or cranberries. A specialist seller of cheese is sometimes known as a cheesemonger. To become an expert in this field, like wine or cooking, requires some formal education and years of tasting and hands-on experience. This position is typically responsible for all aspects of the cheese inventory; selecting the cheese menu, purchasing, receiving, storage, and ripening.

แลกเปลี่ยน เรียนรู้ / Re: มาตรฐานน้ำดื่ม
« เมื่อ: พฤศจิกายน 12, 2012, 05:03:31 PM »
Governments have set standards on the allowable turbidity in drinking water. In the United States, systems that use conventional or direct filtration methods turbidity cannot be higher than 1.0 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) at the plant outlet and all samples for turbidity must be less than or equal to 0.3 NTU for at least 95 percent of the samples in any month. Systems that use filtration other than the conventional or direct filtration must follow state limits, which must include turbidity at no time exceeding 5 NTU. Many drinking water utilities strive to achieve levels as low as 0.1 NTU.

แลกเปลี่ยน เรียนรู้ / Re: สูตรกุนเชียง ???
« เมื่อ: พฤศจิกายน 12, 2012, 05:02:04 PM »
>>Chicken Sausage

2 1/2 pounds chicken legs and thighs, deboned (do not skin or trim fat)
1 1/2 teaspoons coarse kosher salt
1 tbsp minced fresh parsley
1 teaspoon dried tarragon
1 teaspoon dried basil
1 teaspoon balsamic vinegar
1 teaspoon dried parsley or
1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon
1/2 pound pork fat, cut into large chunks
1/4 teaspoon ground white pepper
1/4 cup white wine
1/4 teaspoon dry mustard
1/8 teaspoon ground allspice
3 garlic cloves peeled & minced

Work the chicken and pork fat through a meat grinder, using a small holed disc and alternating ingredients. Add all the remaining ingredients and combine thoroughly. Form the mixture into patties, using about 1/2 cup for each. Preheat a medium nonstick fry pan over medium low heat. Add the patties, cover, and cook for 5 to 7 minutes or until lightly browned. Flip the patties and cook for another 5 to 7 minutes. The chicken sausage ahs a refrigerator shelf life of 5 days and may be frozen, uncooked, for up to 6 months.

แลกเปลี่ยน เรียนรู้ / Process drinking water
« เมื่อ: พฤศจิกายน 12, 2012, 04:56:11 PM »
A combination selected from the following processes is used for municipal drinking water treatment worldwide:
Pre-chlorination for algae control and arresting any biological growth
Aeration along with pre-chlorination for removal of dissolved iron and manganese
Coagulation - for flocculation
Coagulant aids, also known as polyelectrolytes to improve coagulation and for thicker floc formation
Sedimentation for solids separation, that is, removal of suspended solids trapped in the floc
Filtration - removing particles from water
Desalination Process of removing salt from the water
Disinfection - for killing bacteria.
There is no unique solution (selection of processes) for any type of water. Also, it is difficult to standardise the solution in the form of processes for water from different sources. Treatability studies for each source of water in different seasons need to be carried out to arrive at most appropriate processes. The above mentioned technologies are well developed, and generalised designs are available that are used by many water utilities (public or private). In addition to the generalised solutions, a number of private companies provide solutions by patenting their technologies. The developed world employs a considerable amount of automation for water and wastewater treatment. The developing nations worldwide use automation along with manual operations. The level of automation is a choice of operators. The aspects that govern the choice of level of automation are capital and operating costs, skills available locally, operators comfort, integration of automation & control with rest of the component of water supply and so on.

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